Wednesday, April 04, 2007

BAB TUJUH

PENUTUP

7. 1. Kesimpulan dan Dapatan Baru Kajian

Dari huraian secara luas terhadap karya-karya Izutsu berkaitan dengan bagaimana analisis semantik digunakan untuk memahami mesej al-Qur’an tentang hubungan Tuhan, manusia dan alam, saya mendapati beberapa kesimpulan sebagai berikut:

1. Al-Qur’an adalah firman Tuhan yang disampaikan kepada manusia melalui Nabi Muhammad secara langsung

2. Al-Qur’an boleh difahami dari pelbagai pendekatan ilmiah, seperti sejarah, psikologi, sejarah, teologi, takwil dan lain-lain yang mempunyai keterbatasan masing-masing

3. Analisis semantik sebagai pendekatan utama untuk memahami al-Qur’an adalah satu cara untuk membolehkan kitab suci ini menyampaikan mesejnya tanpa dicampuri oleh subjektiviti pentafsir, meskipun tidak sepenuhnya boleh dihindari pendapat peribadi sama sekali

4. Meskipun demikian, semantik diharapkan memberikan pandangan objektif tentang apa yang ingin disampaikan Tuhan kepada Muhammad kerana ia berusaha untuk mengungkapkan makna yang ada dalam ayat bukan di luarnya.

5. Secara ideal, teks al-Qur’an harus difahami berdasarkan teks yang tertera dalam kitab suci, kerana dengan anggapan bahawa makna sebenar daripada teks adalah apa yang dikatakan oleh teks itu sendiri.

6. Analisis semantik Izutsu pada dasarnya mampu memahami mesej al-Qur’an kerana berdasarkan asumsi bahwa model pembacaan menghubungkan satu ayat dengan yang lain untuk mendapatkan mesej dari kitab suci juga dikenal dalam tradisi ulumul al-Qur’an, yang dikenal dengan munasabah. Manakala penggunaan puisi Arab kuno untuk memahami makna dasar sebuah kosa kata juga dilakukan oleh Ibn Abbas, seorang sahabat Nabi yang dikenali sebagai pakar tafsir.

7. Hubungan Tuhan, Manusia dan Alam di dalam al-Qur’an mengandaikan empat hubungan, iaitu ontologi, komunikatif, tuan-hamba dan etik. Implikasi dari semua hubungan ini adalah di satu manusia mempunyai kebebasan untuk melakukan sebuah perbuatan karena dalam sejarahnya penciptaan manusia secara ontologi melalui proses yang menegangkan, iaitu perdebatan Allah dan jin tentang penciptaan Adam, manakala pada sisi lain, kekuasaan mutlak Tuhan memposisikan Dia sebagai tuan yang mempunyai kekuasaan untuk memberi jalan pada manusia bagaimana mereka menemukan pedoman dan menjalaninya dalam kehidupan.

7. 2. Saranan untuk Penyelidikan Lanjut

Dari penjelasan Izutsu tentang kemungkinan pelbagai disiplin boleh memahami mesej al-Qur’an, adalah perlu untuk membaca semula kitab suci ini dengan didasarkan pada pelbagai pendekatan. Tidak sahaja, perkembangan zaman menuntut pembaca memahami teks al-Qur’an selari dengan maksud yang diturunkan empatbelas abad yang lalu, sekali gus juga mencocokkan dengan situasi kontemporeri yang ditandai dengan semakin rumitnya struktur sosial, ekonomi, dan politik.

Jadi, pendekatan semantik yang digunakan oleh Izutsu adalah salah satu cara bagaimana memahami mesej al-Qur’an dan selanjutnya kita memerlukan ilmu-ilmu sosial lain agar mesej itu boleh difahami sekarang dan sesuai dengan tempat ia difahami. Pendek kata, adalah perlu dilakukan kontekstualisasi.

Kerana tema yang diangkat oleh Izutsu berkaitan dengan hubungan Tuhan dan Manusia, namun saya mencuba untuk menyertaikan hubungan kedua-duanya dengan alam, maka disarankan untuk penyelidik selanjutnya berupaya untuk melakukan analisis semantik yang sama terhadap pengertian alam yang didapati dalam al-Qur’an. Dengan demikian, kita boleh memperoleh sebuah dapatan yang utuh tentang hubungan mereka dalam pengertian yang utuh.


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